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Jackson blasts gay judge in Prop 8 ruling

Calls decision ‘a travesty of justice’



Bishop Harry Jackson, the Maryland minister who’s leading efforts to oppose same-sex marriage in D.C., said the gay judge who ruled against California’s Proposition 8 on Wednesday took away voting rights from blacks.

“This is a travesty of justice,” Jackson said of the ruling by Judge Vaughn Walker of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California.

“The majority of Californians — and two-thirds of black voters in California — have just had their core civil right to vote for marriage stripped from them by an openly gay federal judge who has misread history and the Constitution to impose his San Francisco views on the American people,” Jackson said in a statement released by the National Organization for Marriage.

“The implicit comparison Judge Walker made between racism and marriage is particularly offensive to me and to all of us who remember the reality of Jim Crow,” he said. “It is not bigotry, it is biology that discriminates between same-sex couples and opposite-sex couples.

“To make a marriage requires a husband and a wife, because these unions are necessary to make new life and connect children to their mother and father. Judge Walker’s slur will not stand the test of time and history, [and] we demand that Congress and the Supreme Court act to protect all Americans’ right to vote for marriage.”

Jackson apparently was linking a passage in Walker’s ruling comparing state bans on same-sex marriage to state laws that once banned interracial marriage. A U.S. Supreme Court decision in 1967, Loving v. Virginia, overturned state laws that prohibited interracial marriage on grounds that such laws violated the constitutional rights of interracial couples seeking to marry.

Walker ruled that Proposition 8’s ban on same-sex marriage violated the U.S. Constitution’s equal protection and due process clauses.

“Bishop Jackson’s claim is part of a cynical attempt by NOM to wrap its anti-gay bigotry in the cloak of the Black Civil Rights Movement with the goal of mainstreaming their radical right-wing agenda and the hope of making inroads into the African-American community,” said Michael Crawford, co-chair of D.C. for Marriage. “Bishop Jackson’s intellectually dishonest reasoning to enforce marriage discrimination against gay and lesbian families is very similar to the language used in previous years to deny African-Americans the full rights and responsibilities of American citizenship. No one should be fooled. NOM and Harry Jackson have no more interest in civil rights than denying gay and lesbian families equality.”

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  1. Kraig Rasool

    August 5, 2010 at 2:32 pm

    Ministrel Jackson as I put it should stick to the shouting and stomping he does on Sunday Mornings….and stay clear of making comments of subjects which he learns about watching the tube….He is not a judge, nor lawyer…so the travesty of justice
    as he so puts it really is coming from his mouth.
    Why is it that whenever there is confrontation in society the media tends to only interview african-american clergymen and have them speak for the masses?
    There are more than enough college-educated people of color who can weigh in on this issue, oppose or agree.
    Marriage is stated as being an institution (created by
    man)..and so it goes mistakes will be aplenty…

  2. Nameless Cynic

    August 5, 2010 at 2:47 pm

    Almost 50 years ago, the California Legislature passed the Rumford Fair Housing Act, which banned discrimination against “colored” renters or buyers. About 2/3 of California voters overturned the Rumford Act when they passed Proposition 14, which, like Proposition 8, amended the California Constitution, this time to say that Californians could refuse to sell or rent to anyone for any reason. Eventually, the Supreme Court ruled that Proposition 14 violated the 14th Amendment, and it didn’t matter if 100% of Californians had voted for it — it was discrimination, and unconstitutional.

    Maybe Bishop Jackson should read up on the subject a little.

    • Rick Curry

      August 8, 2010 at 1:02 pm

      Thank-you. I had not heard of Prop 14. It’s a good example of the courts protecting the rights of minorities from the excesses of the majority

  3. Doctor Whom

    August 5, 2010 at 7:27 pm

    Anyone who stayed awake during first-year constitutional law could tell you why Bishop Jackson is talking nonsense. Then again, I see no reason to believe that Bishop Jackson cares about the truth at all.

  4. True Believr

    August 5, 2010 at 9:53 pm

    Bishop Jackson should start reading the Bible and stop being a heretic who substitutes his own ideology for theology. His exegesis of the Bible is appalling, his interpretation worse. This so-called “bishop” was consecrated by no one, and assumed the mantle out of his own lust for power. Power motivates his desire to dominate others, where through heresy or through statements like this one about Prop. 8. True Christians should renounce “Bishop” Jackson’s heresy for the lie it is. His statements are like those of Balaam’s ass.

    • Doctor Whom

      August 6, 2010 at 1:01 pm

      I’ve never seen him show any knowledge of the Bible beyond the parts about homosexuality. Shockingly, the “liberal” MSM never call him on his egregious misstatements, but instead print everything he says as Gospel.

  5. SteveMD2

    August 6, 2010 at 1:59 am

    Every group has its people with a birth defect . for Jackson, his problem is the reversal of his alimentary canal.

    If only I had a couple of radical Arabic friends., who would toss this creep into chains, and sell him into slavery in the Islamic world where the practice still exists.

    But with his obsessive mental disorder called hatred, I don’t think even that could get through to him

    Q. What do you call someone who is so obsessed with what consenting, age appropriate people do in their bedroom?

    A. The word begins with P, ends with T, and has a V in the middle.

  6. customartist

    August 6, 2010 at 10:28 am

    Jesus didn’t withhold benefits from the prostitute, but Bishop Harry Jackson clearly deems himself as having greater divine intellect. I hear Bishop Jackson on behalf of Hope Christian church saying:

    “I/We are better than you, spiritually speaking, so We have the prerogative to lobby and to fund secular government to withhold these or any other set of humanitarian benefits that We see fit (even though Jesus himself didn’t set that example for us). We know better!”

    Jackson takes the self-appointed position of judging others, again unlike Jesus. Is THIS the leader that they want? Hmmm?

    Generally, Religious Leaders do none of Jesus’ Authentic Work withholding protections and benefits from any class of citizens, by insisting on imposing their religious opinions into secular government. When will Religious Leaders really LEAD? When will they begin to absorb the true messages of Jesus as a whole and relate his intended heart to others, rather than being lead themselves by hateful biases?

    Bishop Jackson also blatantly exploits earnest Black Californians who are surely smart enough to see Jacksons actions for what they are. I for one don’t think for a single moment that Black Americans, having experienced their obvious oppression, would wish to have any other group to be submitted to such similar discrimination. “We want ours, but you can’t have yours because we don’t like you (for whatever differences we may have)”? “ You can have some, but not you” ?? “Equality applies to you, but not you”??? No Wayyy!

    Equality means Equality under the United States Constitution. The best way to get respect is to give it.

    Jackson has some spiritual growing yet to do. Lead on!

  7. Lute

    August 6, 2010 at 2:45 pm

    I find it so ironic, that in the aftermath of Prop 8’s passage, when African American voters were singled out as a major factor in it’s passage, there were outcries from African American groups. Now you have this. If California African American groups don’t rip Harry Jackson over this, then they’ll look like hypocrites in my eyes. Hopefully this won’t be the case.

    • Chris

      August 9, 2010 at 2:00 am

      Why would they look like hypocrites? And African Americans were singled out PURPOSELY and our white sisters and brothers in the LGBTQ community truly let us know how they felt about the entire race! So much for LOVE right!

      All African Americans are NOT homophobic. And we pay this ignoramous no attention and focus on getting marriage equality and maybe you should too!

  8. Peter the saint

    August 6, 2010 at 2:50 pm

    Brian Brown, President of NOM (Nat’l Org for Marriage) says in a letter, “Judge Walker is right that this is a civil rights question, it’s a question of OUR civil rights!”

    So, they want THEIR civil right to vote on OUR civil rights. Uh, how crazy is THAT?! Accordingly, then, I demand MY civil right to vote on whether we should reconstitute “Traditional Entertainment” from centuries ago, and begin feeding evangelical christians and mormons to the lions.

    Will you take a stand, and restore OUR civil rights to be able to vote for this? It should never have been taken away from the people. Two Thumbs up!

  9. Bill

    August 7, 2010 at 9:21 pm

    Don’t miss the connection between five assaults against gays and the hatred that black ministers — like this freak are spreading. Why isn’t this piece of scum treated like Fred Phelps? Do you think there is a difference? Blacks need to get on this guy.

    • Chris

      August 9, 2010 at 2:03 am

      Bill from reading another posting on here you did.I think you personally have a problem with African Americans. Obviously you just like the media focus on negativity and like to use it against African Americans as a weapon. That’s a typical caucasian who has issues with Blacks. But hey that’s you If you adnmit your hatred for Blacks then some of them will admit their hatred of us Gays.


  10. Bojan Tronick

    August 8, 2010 at 5:11 pm

    BHJ needs to go away. He is now claiming that he has several ex-gays who attend his church. Judging from photos on his website and youtube videos the “ex-gays” that attend his church must relapse Monday morning. What self-respecting gay man or lesbian would go to a church like his? Someone should organize a protest of his church.

    • Frankie James

      August 9, 2010 at 12:37 pm

      Most everyone is in the closet for some time – that is who attends those churches. It just seems our black brothers and sisters stay in a little longer that most, especially the brothers. Why? You should ask them.

      Preacher man – I know a little redneck white town in Southern Maryland that would outlaws blacks totally if it were allowed.

      Get it you idiot! A majority can not allowed the legal actions of a minority because of the “ick factor.”

      You are fool sir who is clearly running for office. Maybe you and the Greedy Lying Freak Palin should team up.

  11. Bill

    August 9, 2010 at 4:06 pm

    @@Bojan Tronick – totally agree. The ex-gay movement is a hate crime. This fool needs to go away. I can’t help but wonder if he is a closet case. What else would fuel such hate and continued interest? If anyone knows that he is on the down-low, send the info to the Blade and let’s out him.

  12. Bill

    August 10, 2010 at 11:26 pm

    DC Live has a lecture for all of us about how the hatred and homophobia spread by Jackson and his ilk of black ministers have NOTHING TO DO with the LEARNED HATRED by young black thugs toward the gay community. Such foolishness and myopic blindness.

  13. Jerry

    August 11, 2010 at 1:19 pm

    People like Bigot Harry Jackson will never change their opinions, their brains have ossified and are no longer capable of growth. The wailing from the haters about the 7 million people who wanted to enshrine bigotry into the California constitution is sad. A majority, no less. WRONG! A majority of the people of voting age did not turn out to vote in the 2008 election. Some because they are not legal residents of the state, some are not citizens, some are in jail. Of the registered voters, only 62% voted even though Californians can vote by mail now. In 2008 California had 21,969,364 registered voters 13,743,177 ballots were counted that leaves 8,226,187 registered voters who weren’t concerned enough to vote either way. So altogether, less than one third of registered California voters opted to cast their votes for bigotry.

  14. Bill

    August 12, 2010 at 2:50 pm

    I don’t buy the bull argument made by “Rev.” Jackson that heterosexual marriage is better for children – and it is certainly not so in the black . The facts report a very different reality, “Rev.” According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics for 2007 (the latest year of recorded data) 40% of children in the U.S. are born to single women, this is a blended number. The breakdown is: 28% to white women; 51% of Latinas; and 72% to Black women — again 72% to black single women! “Rev. Jackson,” own the implications of this data, it is YOUR community that is doing the MOST damage to the raising of children. Face it, “Rev. Jackson” you’re the threat.

  15. John-Manuel Andriote

    August 13, 2010 at 3:26 pm

    Rev. Jackson is missing a big piece of his knowledge of the Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution. Claiming that black California voters were denied “their core civil right to vote for marriage” he is missing the point Ted Olsen made so eloquently and logically in his case on behalf of the gay couples in the suit to overturn Proposition 6. As Olsen explained so clearly, on Fox News no less, the Declaration of Independence recognizes that all humans are entitled to “certain inalienable rights,” including the pursuit of happiness; the US Supreme Court has, in case after case, determined that marriage is one of those inalienable rights; the US Constitution guarantees “equal justice under the law” for ALL Americans. Therefore, the “right” to marriage is guaranteed to ALL Americans by the very founding documents of this nation. No one can vote to strip anyone else of those rights–no matter how much they “disapprove” or dislike, no matter how many votes they line up on their side. Now it’s up to the Supreme Court to affirm what is, really, already in the law–to overturn the unconstitutional Defense of Marriage Act, to keep Proposition 8 overturned, and to blot out the unconstitutional amendments and other state and local efforts to disenfranchise gay Americans of their/our FULL equality.

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Comings & Goings



Troy Cline, gay news, Washington Blade
The 'Comings & Goings' column chronicles important life changes of Blade readers.

The Comings & Goings column is about sharing the professional successes of our community. We want to recognize those landing new jobs, new clients for their business, joining boards of organizations and other achievements. Please share your successes with us at: [email protected]

The Comings & Goings column also invites LGBTQ+ college students to share their successes with us. If you have been elected to a student government position, gotten an exciting internship, or are graduating and beginning your career with a great job, let us know so we can share your success. 

Shin Inouye, gay news, Washington Blade
Steven McCarty

Congratulations to Steven McCarty on being named president of the Kiwanis Club of Washington, D.C. He said, “I’m honored to be installed as the president of the Kiwanis Club of Washington, D.C. and to be able to shepherd our programs and volunteers to impact youth where they are needed most. Our club’s new partnership with SMYAL has already turned a portion of their Youth Center in Southeast D.C. into the first Clinical Services Department in the District that offers free and affirming mental healthcare to LGBTQ Youth. As an openly gay man, I’m proud to further our club’s mission with radical empathy and inclusion.” McCarty has also recently been awarded Kiwanis’ highest honor, the George Hixson award.

McCarty is a Technical Program Specialist at stac labs in D.C. He is also founder and campaign manager at Abolish Racism 2020. He worked as a Senior Customer Success Manager,  Crowdskout. He was a workplace equality intern at Human Rights Campaign and a summer fellow at Michigan State AFL-CIO, in Lansing, Mich. 

McCarty earned his bachelor’s in Political Science and Communications Studies at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.

Congratulations also to Shin Inouye on his appointment as Executive Vice President of Communications, The Leadership Conference on Civil Rights and Human Rights, The Leadership Conference Education Fund. 

Wade Henderson, interim president and CEO of The Leadership Conference and The Education Fund said, “We are thrilled Shin Inouye will be taking on even greater responsibilities on our senior leadership team. His incredible talent and commitment to this organization and our work are truly outstanding, and his strategic leadership will no doubt continue moving us forward in the fight to protect and advance civil and human rights.”

Inouye has held a number of positions with the organization including Managing Director of Communications. Inouye also held a number of high-level positions in the Obama administration, including Press Secretary and Acting Senior Adviser for Intergovernmental and External Affairs, Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services; Adviser for Intergovernmental and External Affairs, Executive Office of the President; White House Office of Communications: Director of Specialty Media; and served as an authorized spokesperson for the Obama Inaugural Committee, with a focus on specialty media outlets, including LGBTQ, AAPI, Native American, Youth/College, Faith, and Jewish press. Prior to that Inouye was Communications Director in the Office of Congressman Jerrold Nadler (N.Y.) and has also worked for the ACLU and as a summer intern with the American Chamber of Commerce in Japan. 

Inouye received a number of honors including being named One of 25 “LGBTI next generation leaders to watch” by Out in National Security and the Atlantic Council; and One of “40 Asian American Pacific Islander National Security & Foreign Policy Next Generation Leaders” by New America and the Diversity in National Security Network.

Shin Inouye
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Youngkin reiterates opposition to marriage equality

Va. gubernatorial candidate says issue ‘legally acceptable’ in state



(Photo courtesy of Twitter)

Glenn Youngkin in an interview with the Associated Press has reiterated his opposition to marriage rights for same-sex couples.

Youngkin—a Republican who is running against Democrat Terry McAuliffe to succeed Virginia Gov. Ralph Northam—said in an interview published on Friday that he feels “called to love everyone.” Youngkin then reiterated his opposition to marriage equality before he added it is “legally acceptable” in the state.

“I, as governor, will support that,” Youngkin told the AP.

McAuliffe was Virginia’s governor from 2014-2018.

Same-sex couples began to legally marry in Virginia a few months after McAuliffe took office.

McAuliffe in 2014 became the first governor of a Southern state to officiate a same-sex wedding. The lesbian couple who McAuliffe married recently appeared in one of his campaign ads.

McAuliffe on Friday criticized Youngkin. “As governor, I worked my heart out to keep Virginia open and welcoming to all,” said McAuliffe in a tweet. “This type of bigotry and intolerance has no place in our commonwealth.”

The anti-LGBTQ Family Research Council, which the Southern Poverty Law Center has categorized as an extremist group, earlier this month endorsed Youngkin, but Log Cabin Republicans are among the groups that have backed his campaign. The Human Rights Campaign in 2019 named Youngkin’s former company, the Carlyle Group, as a “Best Place to Work for LGBTQ Equality” in its annual Corporate Equality Index.

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D.C. school board calls for LGBTQ-inclusive teaching standards

Sweeping resolution proposing content in curricula approved unanimously



Gay State Board of Education member Allister Chang.

The D.C. State Board of Education voted unanimously on Oct. 20 to approve a resolution calling for LGBTQ+ Inclusive Education Standards for the city’s public schools that “reflect on the political, economic, social, cultural, and scientific contributions and experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people.”

The two-page resolution, which was introduced by gay State Board of Education member Allister Chang, who represents Ward 2, cites national research showing that students who have access to LGBTQ+ curricula in their schools “are more likely to report lower frequency of bullying, lower levels of depression, more accepting peers, and greater feelings of safety in school.”

The resolution states that research also shows that multicultural education, including the teaching of LGBTQ topics, “helps prevent the formation of bias and prejudice and creates more democratic communities.”

LGBTQ rights advocates have long considered the local D.C. government through its mayor and City Council to be highly supportive of the LGBTQ community. But Chang and other supporters of the resolution approved by the board Wednesday night say their research shows that D.C. public schools, while supportive of LGBTQ students, are far behind the school systems in several other states in the inclusion of LGBTQ topics in school curricula.

As an example, supporters of the resolution point out that curriculum standards for social studies classes in the D.C. school system include only one mention of LGBTQ people in a teaching section related to victims of the Holocaust.   

Unlike most other cities and states, under current D.C. law, the school system is controlled by the mayor through the D.C. Department of Education, which is headed by a Deputy Mayor for Education and who, in turn and in consultation with the mayor, appoints a State Superintendent of Education who oversees the day-to-day operations of the schools.

Under a change in the education statute approved by the D.C. Council and signed by then-Mayor Adrian Fenty in 2007, the school board, which was renamed the State Board of Education, became a mostly advisory body on education matters with some statutory authority to approve education standards on which school curricula are based.

Thus, the resolution approved by the board on Wednesday “advises” and “recommends” that the State Superintendent of Education develop school curricula, guidance for teachers, and school-based leaders and staff “in providing LGBTQ+ inclusive lessons and practices in their classrooms.”

The resolution concludes by recommending that the State Superintendent of Education conduct a survey of students within two years after the Oct. 20 adoption of the resolution “to establish baseline data and to gain an understanding of the current experiences of LGBTQ+ students across the district and what all students know and understand about the contributions and experiences of LGBTQ+ people in the relevant subject areas.”

Chang and other members of the State Board of Education noted at the Oct. 20 meeting, which was virtual, that Will Beckerman, who graduated this year from D.C.’s School Without Walls High School, played an important role in conducting the research used to prepare the LGBTQ standards resolution and helped in the drafting of the resolution.

Chang noted that much of the background information used to draft the resolution came from Beckerman’s senior year school research paper and advocacy project that focuses on the topic of LGBTQ-inclusive education.

In comments supporting the resolution, Chang also spoke about how the very limited LGBTQ content he encountered during his high school days helped him accept himself as a gay youth.

“As a student myself, I don’t remember a single mention of any LGBTQ people in any of my classwork until I read Thomas Mann in my senior year in high school,” Chang said. “And in Death in Venice, this Nobel Prize winner touches upon his struggles with homosexuality but never actually names it explicitly,” Chang told fellow board members.

“And I remember holding on to this novella despite the self-hatred that’s woven throughout this story because it was the first time that I saw this aspect of my identity reflected in my class work,” he said. “My hope – and I think this hope comes true with this resolution tonight – is that future generations of LGBTQ students have more opportunities to see themselves reflected in their class work and to feel less isolated by their class work than I did growing up.”

It couldn’t immediately be determined whether D.C. Mayor Muriel Bowser will endorse the school system changes proposed by the resolution approved by the State Board of Education.

The full text of the resolution follows:

State Board of Education Resolution

On LGBTQ+ Inclusive Education Standards


WHEREAS, the 2019 District of Columbia Youth Risk Behavior Survey found that lesbian, gay, and bisexual students make up 15.9 percent of high school students in the District and transgender students make up1.9 percent of District high school students;

WHEREAS, in the District, these students, in comparison to their heterosexual peers, experience double the rate of bullying on school property, report higher rates of being removed from class for disciplinary reasons, and are more than twice as likely to experience suicidal ideation;

WHEREAS, national data shows that lesbian, gay, and bisexual students are significantly more likely to receive grades of D or F than their heterosexual peers and were more likely to be truant;

WHEREAS, consistent research suggests that students with LGBTQ+ inclusive curricula in their schools are more likely to report lower frequency of bullying, lower levels of depression, more accepting peers, and greater feelings of safety in school—and this safety leads students to report higher attendance, higher GPAs, a greater sense of belonging in the school community, and higher educational aspirations;

WHEREAS, research shows that multicultural education helps prevent the formation of bias and prejudice and creates more democratic communities ; 

WHEREAS, the State Board of Education recognizes the need to have revised social studies standards that create “windows and mirrors” so students see themselves and people like them reflected in the content of standards and curriculum, as well as having the opportunity to learn about diverse people, cultures, places, and experiences unlike themselves—explicitly noting that the current standards emphasize the lives of presidents and other figures who held/hold power and under-represent or lack representation of people and groups like those identifying as LGBTQ+, and their respective histories;

WHEREAS, in the State Board of Education’s review and revision of the social studies standards, the State Board called upon the Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE) to “seek standards writers who reflect the demographics and experiences of District students and of the communities they are writing about” sharing a list of examples that included writers identifying as LGBTQ+;

WHEREAS, the State Board of Education is committed to ensuring students acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to be engaged global citizens in a diverse democratic society; and,

WHEREAS, the State Board of Education has a commitment to promote equity, introduce policies to reduce disparities between students, and create safe school environments for all students.

NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED THAT, upon the next revision of any District of Columbia state education standards, the State Board of Education should adapt standards, when appropriate, that reflect on the political, economic, social, cultural, and scientific contributions and experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people;

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED THAT, the State Board of Education advises the Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE) to provide guidance to teachers and school-based leaders and staff on creating inclusive lessons in science and English language arts (ELA) classes that align with Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and Common Core ELA standards, respectively;

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED THAT, the State Board of Education recommends that the Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE) implement professional development for teachers and school-based leaders and staff to aid them in providing LGBTQ+ inclusive lessons and practices in their classrooms, such that that the professional development includes: workshops for local education agencies (LEAs) and teachers to draft curriculum related to LGBTQ+ topics in their subject areas, lessons on use of inclusive language in the classroom, lessons on ensuring LGBTQ+ students’ safety and confidentiality while maintaining respect for their name and pronouns, and mandatory diversity training related to the LGBTQ+ community; and,

BE IT FINALLY RESOLVED THAT, the State Board of Education recommends that the Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE) survey students within two (2) years of adoption of this resolution to establish baseline date and to gain an understanding of the current experiences of LGBTQ+ students across the district and what all students know and understand about the contributions and experiences of LGBTQ+ people in the relevant subject areas.

Brikett, Michelle et al. “Sexual-orientation disparities in school: the meditational role of indicators of victimization in achievement and truancy because of feeling unsafe.” American Journal of Public Health vol. 104, 6 (2014): 1124-8. doi: 10.2105/AJHP.2013.301785

Kosciw, Joseph G., et al. “The 2019 National School Climate Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Youth in Our Nation’s Schools.” GLSEN, GLSEN, 2020,

Camicia, Steven P. Critical Democratic Education and LGBTQ-Inclusive Curriculum: Opportunities and Constraints. Routledge Focus, 2016.

Camicia, Steven P. “Prejudice Reduction through Multicultural Education: Connecting Multiple Literatures.” Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 2, no. 2, 2007, pp. 219–227.

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